Germania Rediviva

GermaniaForBlog

Goths, Angles, Saxons, Jutes—these are the tribes of ancient Germania, the so-called barbarians who migrated during late Antiquity, building the kingdoms that displaced Rome. The spate of museum exhibits and television shows is only the most recent expression our fascination with ancient Germania. Earlier historical periods likewise came under their spell. In this exhibit, we focus on the rediscovery of the Goths and the Anglo-Saxons in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries.

Tacitus’s account, Germania (98 AD), is the earliest record of the existence of these groups. He gives us the image of war-bands who excelled at feasting, drinking, and raiding. Aside from runic inscriptions, their own records had to wait until their conversion to Christianity, when bilingual missionaries created scripts based on the Latin and Greek alphabets, supplemented by runic characters. In the case of the Goths, this occurred in the fourth century, with the Anglo-Saxons, in the late sixth.

With the exception of the Crimean Goths, who retained their own language and culture until the eighteenth century, these groups ceased to exist as independent linguistic groups by the eleventh century. Nonetheless their languages were revived in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries within specific ideological contexts. Though Wulfila (ca. 311-83) translated most of the Bible into Gothic (all but the Book of Kings, which he feared would rekindle their war-like tendencies), his work only survives in a single, fragmentary manuscript. The rediscovery of this manuscript in the seventeenth century coincided with a time when many philologists were devoting themselves to the search for the “original language.” This scholarship often dovetailed with nationalist fervor as philologists vied with one another to prove that their national language was the oldest, and therefore the most “perfect.”

A larger corpus of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts survives. The rediscovery of these manuscripts coincided with the Reformation, when England sought an alternative lineage to Rome. When Anglo-Saxon manuscripts surfaced containing sermons and the Bible in the vernacular instead of Latin, ecclesiastic officials believed they had found the precedent for their own fledgling church, forging continuity, rather than rupture, with the past. -JC

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Have I Got to Cook That?

The Frederick Joseph Wells Collection consists of letters written by the science-fiction author H.G. Wells to his family members, photographs of H.G. Wells, drawings by H.G. Wells, and other documents related to H.G. Wells. The collection was compiled by H.G. Wells’s older brother, Frederick Joseph Wells. The majority of the letters in the collection are from H.G. to Frederick, and they range from short wishes for a Merry Christmas to more substantive poetic and philosophic passages about deaths in the family as well as descriptions of the destruction and the horrors of World War II.  

In one such letter, dated July 21 1887, H.G. informs Frederick of the death of their cousin Lillie from the horrors of consumption:

 “I am sorry to have to tell you that Aunt Hannah has just suffered another severe loss.  Lillie died last Saturday morning of … rapid destruction of lung tissue by tuberculosis. It is scarcely a fortnight since Gracie was buried, and the shock of this loss is therefore doubly intensified. I can hardly image what that house will be like now those girls have gone. It is an awful thing, this consumption.  There is no haste, no pause, no pity.  It hunts down the family that is cursed with it and one by one, inevitably, they pass away. People shudder at the conception of Frankenstein but here is a demon raised by our sins unspeakably more dreadful.”

 

It is well known that H.G. Wells predicted the atomic bomb in his 1914 novel The World Set Free, three decades before the atomic bombs were dropped. In this note from H.G. to Frederick on October 27, 1945, he describes his frustration at being inaccurately portrayed as not having predicted the bomb. (He often addressed his brother Frederick as “Fezzer,” “Fuzz,” or “Fezz” and often signed his letters to his family as “Busswhacker” or “Bertie.”)

“Dearest Old Fezzer,

I’m all right & everything misses me.  I explained the inevitableness of the atomic bomb half a century ago & it is rather infuriating to have all these journalistic halfwits explaining that here’s something Mr. Wells did not foresee. It’s a strange rightful phase this poor little planet is passing through[.] I have always been a stoic but I would be glad to see the run of mankind behaving more like stoics & less like smart Alecs than they seem to be doing.  Blessings on your fraternal // Fizz Fuzz.

H.G. Wells

The one & only

Busswhacker”

 

It is not uncommon to find little drawings, or “picshuas,” as H.G. Wells called them, in the margins of his letters. He used these picshuas to emphasize a point, add humor to his letters, or poke fun at himself or others. For example, a letter from H.G. Wells to his mother Sara Neal Wells, on October 31, 1882, discusses his upcoming birthday and his upcoming wedding to his first wife, Isabel Neal. At the top of the letter he has drawn a pischua, depicted below, joking about the birthday present he hopes to receive from his mother. LV

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If you are interested in reading more about H.G. Wells’s picshuas, please see Gene K. Rinkel and Margaret E. Rinkel, The Picshuas of H. G. Wells, available here.

Click here or contact the Rare Book & Manuscript Library for more information.

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Larry McMurtry’s personal collection of H. G. Wells

We’ve recently finished processing Items from the Larry McMurtry collection of H.G. Wells. The items in this collection formed a part of Larry McMurtry’s personal collection of H. G. Wells and includes some of H. G. Wells personal correspondence, publishers’ correspondence and records, items related to the production and marketing of the film Things to Come, and drawings, advertisement material, and signed books by and related to H. G. Wells.  Larry McMurtry is perhaps best known for his novel Lonesome Dove (1985), for which he won a Pulitzer Prize, and for his Academy Award-winning screenplay for Brokeback Mountain (2005).
 
Herbert George Wells (1866-1946) was an English novelist, essayist, journalist, screenwriter, and political figure, who revolutionized modern science fiction with works such as The Time MachineThe Invisible Man, and The War of the Worlds
 
Try your hand at deciphering Wells’ handwriting in this photo depicting some of his letters to Naomi Mitchison, Scottish novelist and poet. 
 
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In addition to Wells’ personal correspondence, this collection also contains around ninety letters, contracts, and financial records detailing the particulars of publishing his work. These letters provide fascinating insights into the relationships between the author and his publishers as well as between British and American publishers. 
 
For example, the correspondence traces a misunderstanding over the royalty payment for the inclusion of The Island of Dr. Moreau in Seven Famous Novels.  The situation got rather tense, as when Dodd, Mead and Company wrote the following to A.S. Watt of A.P. Watt & Son on July 13, 1934:
 
“We are sufficiently old friends so that I feel that I can tell you quietly [sic] frankly that I was considerably annoyed and genuinely surprised that we were not consulted concerning the inclusion of THE ISLAND OF DR. MOREAU [sic] in the Knopf anthology. …Is not the original fault yours in not having cleared up the matter at the start, rather than leaving it to us to make a claim for our rights when the book was on the verge of publication? I see no alternative but to deduct the 10% commission from the author’s share of the earnings and hold it here for the present until you have straightened out the situation….”
 
Another letter, written on May 29, 1947 from Bennett A. Cerf, of Random House, to Howard Lewis, of Dodd, Mead & Company, reluctantly withdraws Random House’s objection to Collins publishing Tono Bungay in Canada.  As seen in the below quote, Random House’s frustration is clear.
  
“I see that the course of the Tono Bungay proceedings is taking its pre-determined and completely predictable way.  By this time, I guess we all ought to be used to the situation, but somehow it still astonishes me to see how blandly English publishers can ask American publishers to waive foreign or subsidiary rights and, in almost the same breath, threaten dire legal proceedings if we ship a handful of copies of a book on which they control the rights into India or South Africa:
 
However, none of us here wishes to be disagreeable about the Tono Bungay business, particularly since the English publisher is Collins, one of the nicest.” LV
 

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Student Designs for a new Rare Book & Manuscript Library!

Chang_Page_1.jpgGraduate Architecture Students in Professor Vidar Lerum‘s studio course took on the challenge of designing a new home for the magnificent collections of the University of Illinois’ Rare Book & Manuscript Library. With librarians and curators servings as their “clients,” and adhering strictly to their stated needs for special spaces to house, research, care for, and celebrate the collections, the students came up with 16 innovative and creative solutions to the pressing need to create a worthy space for these world-class collections. The designs are all environmentally-friendly and all make good use of available space. Now, if only we could get Oprah Winfrey or another amazing philanthropist to realize that the opportunity of a lifetime awaits to put one’s name on one of the greatest rare book and manuscript collections in the country. Enjoy the creativity of our students—and think seriously about the very real need to house these collections more appropriately.

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The Double Life of the Letter “U”

The letter “u” is a workhorse of the alphabet. It occurs so frequently that it will earn you only one point in Scrabble. Even so, it flies under the radar, escaping our notice. Now, texting threatens to elevate it to a pronoun. Have we underestimated this unassuming letter? The time has come for a closer look.
The letter derives from a character in the Phoenician script, attested from the eleventh century B.C.E., that originated as a pictogram of a hook, but also a sound transliterated as wāw. As the Phoenician script spread through the Mediterranean world, neighboring cultures adapted it to their own languages. In Greek, it became the upsilon—Υ, or υ in the lower case. In Latin, it became the v, which, despite its appearance, had the phonological value of our long u. The current, rounded form did not emerge in the Latin alphabet until the second century, when a book script developed that lost the angularity of earlier Roman scripts principally used for carving into stone.
 
The two forms coexisted throughout the medieval period. Its two forms, and the two strokes needed to form the letter, gave scholars much food for thought. A Carolingian scholar asked, “What is meant by its two strokes? And what do its two forms mean—the first oblique and the second straight? The first signifies evil speech and the last, good speech.” These same features prompted another scholar to the following ruminations: “How wide and spacious is life that leads to death! And how narrow and confined is the way that leads to life!”
We like the notion of a letter with an evil twin. Here are a few examples from our pre-1650 holdings. All are examples of the rounded form of u, but we hope the sentiments they help express do not lead you down the wayward path.
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This manuscript contains the prayers, rubrics, and music necessary to celebrate Mass. This image is of the Preface of the Canon. The Canon of the Mass often received special attention from scribes and  decorators as a way of acknowledging the sacrality of this portion of the rite. Decoration probably served a practical purpose as well. Since the Canon was the unvarying part of the mass, the priest needed to turn to it each time he celebrated mass. Large, colorful initials made it easier to find the necessary text.
 
This design is a monogram, when two letters combine to form a symbol. The two letters are u and d of the first two words of the prayer,uere dignum et iustus est [It is truly right and just]. The letters are hard to recognize because the artist has made them nearly symmetrical, but the priest would have had no difficulty recognizing this familiar prayer.
 
Notice also how, to the left of the monogram, the descender of the p sprouts both an acanthus leaf and a lizard’s head. The lizard looks like he is on his way over to take a bite out of the monogram, as if about to enact his own eucharistic feast.
 ordo.png
This manuscript contains the coronation rites of Charles IV and of his wife Jeanne d’Evreux, a rite that took place on May 11, 1326. The manuscript is particularly significant because only three other illustrated coronation rites have survived. Ours is lavishly illustrated, with over thirty historiated initials. Scholars think the book was probably prepared in advance of the event and intended as a souvenir for a relative, possibly one of Jeanne d’Evreux’s sisters or Charles IV’s sister, Isabella of England.
 
The manuscript is open to the prayers the archbishop recited as he anointed the king. The first initial introduces the text, Ungo te in regem de olio sanctificato [With chrism I anoint you king]. It is an historiated initial that depicts the archbishop, crozier in hand, as he anoints the king’s forehead. An attendant, only partly visible, stands behind the kneeling king.
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Below the historiated initial there is a second initial that contains the arms of Jeanne d’Evreux. It introduces an antiphon sung by the archbishop’s attendants. This antiphon invokes the coronation of Solomon by Zadoch and Nathan in the 1 Kings. The juxtaposition of these two prayers unites the coronation of Charles IV, occuring in the here and now, to the coronation of Solomon, occuring in the timeless, ahistorical realm of the liturgy.
 William (1).jpg
This manuscript contains a chronicle of the history of England commonly known as the prose Brut. The Brut draws on legend and history in equal parts, including figures such as Arthur and Merlin, along with Edward the Confessor and Harold Godwinson. The title derives from the figure of Brutus, the son of Aeneas and the legendary founder of Britain. The work was composed in the late thirteenth century in Anglo-Norman, but was later translated into Middle English with continuations to bring it up to date.
The manuscript is open to the section of the text that recounts the conquest of England. The section, introduced by a five-line initial, begins, “Whan Willia[m] Bastard duke of Normandye had conquerred al Þe londe uppon Cristmasseday next sewyng he was crowned king at Westmynst.” Since the w is the only decorated initial inside this manuscript aside from one at the text’s opening, we may assume that William the Conqueror was especially significant to the book’s first owner.
The letter w was not part of the Latin alphabet, but was introduced in English during the Middle Ages. First a convention arose of doubling the u when it served as a consonant. Eventually, it became a letter in its own right. That its form is of a double v and its name the double u attests to the interchangablilty of these letters throughout the Middle Ages.
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Isidore of Seville’s encyclopedia, commonly known as the Etymologies, was a popular textbook throughout the Middle Ages and beyond. According to Stephen Barney, the work’s most recent editor, “it was the most influential book, after the Bible…for nearly a thousand years.” It gathers all knowledge into twenty books, ranging from the succintly titled “Grammar” (Book 1) to the more unwieldy, “Tables, Foodstuffs, Drink and their Vessels, Vessels for Wine, Water, and Oil, Vessels of Cooks, Bakers and Lamps, Beds, Chairs, Vehicles, Rural and Garden Implements, Equestrian Equipment” (Book 20).  Along the way it stops at the “Cosmos and its Parts” (Book 13).
The printer left space for initials to be hand-painted later, as well as small guide letters so the artist would know what letter to make. On this page, the guide letter is the straight form of the letter while the initial painted by the decorator is the rounded form. JC
 
Missal, ca. 12th century. Pre-1650 MS 0101
Ordo ad consecrandum et coronandum regem et reginam Franciae. France, approximately 1326-1330. Pre-1650 MS 0124
[Here begynneth a boke in Englysshe tonge called Brute of Ingelond, or, The cronycles of Ingelond.] England, ca. 1450. Pre-1650 MS 0116
Isidore of Seville. d. 636. Isidori Iunioris Hispalensis Episcopi Epistola Liber etimologiarum. Augsburg: Ginther Zainer, 19 November 1472.Incunabula Q. 871 I5e.Z

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A 12th-Century Charter

This charter records a privilege granted to the city of Como, Italy, by the German king and Holy Roman Emperor, Henry V (1086-1125).

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Henry V is mostly known for his role in drawing up the Concordat of Worms, which brought the investiture controversy to a close. His life tends to pale next to that of his father Henry IV, who deposed a pope and was excommunicated in turn. Henry V did his best to live up to his father’s example. He took a pope prisoner, for example, to extract an imperial coronation out of him.  However, this charter gives us insight into more subtle tactics of persuasion.

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The dating clause states that it was granted “In the ninth indiction, in the year 1116 of the Incarnation, when Henry V had reigned eleven years as the King of the Romans and six as emperor.” The charter was one of many he made on a trip to Italy to secure his inheritance. His wife, Matilda had died in 1115. During her lifetime she had changed her mind several times about how to dispose of her lands, signing them over to the church, then back to Henry again. En route, he granted a number of urban privileges to gain the support of locals.

This charter grants the right of imperial protection to the cities of Como and Menaggio:

“We order that no bishop, duke, margrave, dignitary, or any person, great or small, shall presume to subjugate or harm the aforementioned men, or deprive them of their lands. For whoever shall do it, let him know that he will gather one thousand pounds of the best gold to be shared between our court and the aforementioned citizens. ”

 

Charter-Seal.jpg It is authenticated with an imperial monogram. Henry had two monograms. Here he used his imperial monogram. It stands for HEINRICUS DEI GRA[TIA] QUARTUS ROMANORUM IMPERATOR AUGUSTUS [Henry, by the grace of God, the Fourth annointed emperor of the Romans]. (He was the fifth Henry, but only the fourth to become emperor). Each letter of the sentence is only represented once, and the same lines recombine to form different letters.

Burchard von Holte writes the recognition clause. He was the bishop of Muenster, but seems to have preferred accompanying Henry around the Empire to putzing around his diocese.

The charter is the oldest document in the Archivio Cavagna Sangiuliani in Zelada portion of the Cavagna Collection, which consists of both manuscript and printed materials relating to local history of Italian cities and towns, institutions, societies, and families. Please contact a staff member if you would like to request this item for use in the Rare Book and Manuscript Library. JC

CAV 53.7

 

Further Reading

More fun facts about the Salian dynasty can be found in,

Fuhrmann, Horst. Germany in the High Middle Ages, c. 1050-1200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.

Scholarly sources on royal and imperial monograms of the Middle Ages are scarce. The best source I have been able to find is,

Baudis, Gottfried Leonhard. Monogrammatum Imperatorum Ac Regum Germanicorum A Carolo M. Usque Ad Excessum Conradi III….Leipzig: Breitkopf, 1737

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The Rare Book & Manuscript Library Invites Visiting Scholar Applications

The John “Bud” Velde Visiting Scholars Program

The Rare Book & Manuscript Library

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

CALL FOR APPLICATIONS, 2016-17 Program Cycle

The Rare Book & Manuscript Library annually awards two stipends of up to $3,000 to scholars and researchers, unaffiliated with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, who would like to spend a month or more conducting research with our materials.

The holdings of The Rare Book & Manuscript Library are substantial. Comprehensive collections support research in printing and printing history, Renaissance studies, Elizabethan and Stuart life and letters, John Milton and his age, emblem studies, economic history, and works on early science and natural history. The library also houses the papers of such diverse literary figures as Carl Sandburg, H. G. Wells, William Maxwell, and W. S. Merwin. In addition, it is anticipated that the Gwendolyn Brooks Papers will be open to researchers in time for this program cycle.

For information about this program, how to apply, and to find out more about The Rare Book & Manuscript Library, please visit our Web site at:

http://www.library.illinois.edu/rbx/research_fellowships.html

Please contact the Public Programs Manager, Dennis Sears, with further questions about the program or the Rare Book & Manuscript Library:

Or email Dennis: dsears (at) illinois (dot) edu.

Deadline for application: *5 February 2016*.

Thank you!

DS

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